2010考研英语浏览翻译

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2010考研英语浏览翻译详细简介以下,欲望可以赞助到您:
One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its inteyrity, they are entitled to continuance.
When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it we invent excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbiras were supposed to be disappearing. 46)Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distimctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them. The evideuce had to be economic in order to be valid.
It is pamful to read these round about accounts today.We have no land ethic yet, 47)but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. 48)Time was when biologists somewhat overworked the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless species.
Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly or have too low a sale value to pay as timber crops. 49)In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such ,within reason.
To sum up:a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. 50)It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts, It tends to relegate to government many functions eventually too large, too complex, or too widely dispersed to be performed by government.
46)Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distimctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them.
剖析:
1.所有句子的主干结构是scientists jumped to the rescue,这里有一个很生动的动词jumped,直接翻译的意思是“跳着”,引申为“赶忙,慌忙,迅速接纳行动”。Rescue是“救援,支援”的意思,以是,纵然同砚们不知道“to the rescue”自己是一个习气用法也知道怎样翻译:迷信家们慌忙来抢救这类时势;或许翻译为,迷信家们迅速赶来救援。
2.With some distinctly shaky evidence是介词短语作状语,其中有一个较量焦点的宾语词evidence(证据),这个单词在考研(服装网服装论坛) 翻译20来中考过两次,划分涌现在95年73题和99年的73题。以是介词with应当翻译为“用,应用”,由于下文宾语是“证据”,以是是“应用证据”,最好不要翻译为“带着证据”。而evidence前面的润饰语distinctly这个词,是“清晰地,确切地,显着地”,这个单词在考研翻译2003年63题考过,在本句话中,它润饰形貌词shaky。Shaky是动词shake(摇动)的形貌词,意思是“不稳固的,摇晃的”,在本句话中它润饰“证据”,诠释“证据站不住脚”。
以是这个部门合起来可以翻译为:迷信家们应用一些显着站不住脚的证据,吃紧忙忙赶来救援。或许也能够或许直接翻译为:迷信家们迅速赶来抢救这类时势,他们应用的证据显着站不住脚。
3.to the effect that... 这个短语是所有句子最难翻译的部门。Effect这个词倒不难,考研翻译考过了很一再再三,还考过这个单词的不合形式的词性,好比effective。但遗憾的是,大多数同砚简直没有控制这个短语的意思是“with the meaning”,翻译成汉语就是:“大意是,意思是说...”这样的意思。
4.insects would eat us up of birds failed to control them是to the effect that...所带的从句,自己也是一个严重句,但是很好翻译,结构质朴,意义清晰。但是必须要指出两点。其一,eat us up,可以直译为“把我们吃光”,由于汉语语言自己不具有逻辑,好比汉语我们可以说“他明天把我吃垮了——言下之意是:我宴客,他明天吃得够猛,价钱还很贵”;以是这个译文应当是准确的。但是“虫子是不克不及吃人的”,以是我以为最好翻译为:吃光一切器械。其二,fail这个词,切切不要翻译为“掉落败”,可以翻译为“不克不及做...”。虽然,代词them术语第三人称代词,最好指代明确,它指的是前面的这些“虫子”。
参考译文:
迷信家们迅速赶来抢救这类时势,他们应用的证据显着站不住脚,大意是说:假定鸟不克不及控制这些虫子,虫子就会吃光一切。
47)but we have at least drawn nearer the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
剖析:
1.划线部门是所有句子的后半个并列句,前面尚有一个小句子,意思是说:我们还不具有一种土地伦理熟悉。But并列了后半个句子。We have at least drawn nearer the point是主干部门,较量好翻译:我们更最少靠近了一点,得出了一种不雅不雅点。
2.of admitting…是一个of短语,润饰前面的“不雅不雅点”;但是由于admitting前面还带了一个很长的that宾语从句,以是翻译的时间,切切不要把of admitting这个短语前脸部门翻译到“不雅不雅点”前面。这类结构,在2008年46题也泛起过,也是我在09年年度的强化冲刺等班上强调得较量多的一点效果。可以直接把of…前脸部门翻译在“不雅不雅点”前面,用一个冒号离隔便可。
3.that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right是本句最难翻译的部门,要害有一个intrinsic这个单词,能够许多若干许多几何同砚不熟悉,它是“自己的,固有的,内在的”等意思。这个单词是出题人改写出来的。人人可以看到,我昨天供应的李奥帕多写的《沙郡岁月》原书中不是用的这个词,这个句子在这里有很大的改写。稍微回朔一下原文就知道,在第一段就泛起了“Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and…”,以是这里的鸟类的固有权力是指其“固有的作为一种生物物种的权力”。这样的话,这个部门便可以翻译为:鸟类应当一连享有其作为一种生物物种固有的权力。
4.regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us,是一个regardless of…所带的短语做状语。Economic advantage to us是指“对我们来讲,(鸟类)具有的经济价值”。单词advantage,在考研翻译90年和08年都考过,有“优势”的意思。这里直译成“经济优势”,我以为也是可以吸收的。而Presence or absence则较量质朴,字面意思是“泛起或许缺掉落”,下文说的是“这类经济价值的(泛起或许缺掉落)”,以是最好引申为“能否具有经济价值”。
参考译文:
但是,我们更最少靠近了一点,得出了一种不雅不雅点,即:认可鸟类应当一连享有其作为一种生物物种的权力,岂论它们能否对我们具有经济价值。
48)Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on “worthless species.
1.Time was when...,就这三个词,能够就有点让考生担忧。着实关系部大:可以直接翻译为:其时,有一段时间是...。假定稍微看看曲折文会更清晰time was when的内在。上文说:A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds.“有一种类似的情形存在......”。以是,这里的time was when...是想指出“在那段时间,类似的情形是...”。虽然,我们浅易以为time was when是一种非正式用语,它即是there was time when...,好比:Time was when my wife loved me passionately. Now she doesn't even cook for me.(曾几甚么时间,我媳妇儿也曾深深地爱着我,现在,他连饭都不给我做。)以是,time was when翻译为:曾几甚么时间,曾经有那么一段时间,等等,都是很不错的。
2.biologists somewhat overworked the evidence,焦点动词是overwork,较量难翻译。假定直接翻译的话是“使命过量,铺张时间过量”。但是推敲到下文是“证据”,以是,一定不克不及说:对质据使命得太多;但是基本上可以说:铺张在证据上的时间太多。联络46题,我们就知道,跟证据最搭配的动词是“应用证据”,以是overwork虽然轻松的就处置赏罚赏罚了,意思是“应用证据太多”,翻译为:滥用证据。故所有小句子翻译为:生物学家有点滥用证据。
联络下文that...,很显着下文是对质据的进一步叙述,指出是甚么证据,在语法上是两个that指导的同位语从句。以是上文“曾几甚么时间,生物学家有点滥用证据”,最好翻译到所有句子前面,为了扫除的叙述是甚么证据。
3.That these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak是that指导的第一个并列同位语从句填补诠释前面的evidence。焦点动词是preserve,前面接一个by介词短语充当要领状语。以是,基本结构应当翻译为:这些生物经由历程...来生涯...。有一个难点就是preserve这个动词的宾语the health of game的翻译,其一,game这个词一定不克不及翻译为“游戏”,而是这些生物的“猎物”;以是preserve the health of game可以直接翻译为“保持猎物的安康(状态)”。其二,这里有点令人隐晦:为甚么要“保持猎物的安康”?经由历程下文,欠悦目出:这些生物经由历程猎杀“the physically weak(体质上较量弱的猎物)”,就保留了那些相对“强的”猎物,以生涯其食物链上猎物的安康。以是,这个句子可以翻译为:这些生物经由历程猎杀弱者来保持猎物的安康状态。
4.or that they prey only on “worthless species是or并列的第二个that同位语从句。其中代词they指的是creatures(这些生物),prey是“捕食”的意思。真个句子翻译为:这些生物捕食的仅仅是“毫居心义的物种”。引号,原文有,直接套用英语(服装网服装论坛)的形式,加在汉语上便可。
参考译文:
有一种证据以为,这些生物经由历程猎杀弱者来生涯猎物的安康状态,或许说,这些生物捕杀的只不外是“毫居心义的物种”;曾几甚么时间,生物学家有点滥用这类证据。
49)In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-comercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such ,within reason.
1.该句话是今年度最质朴的一道题。
In europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced是一个where指导的定语从句,润饰前面的所在欧洲。可以直接翻译为:在欧洲,其林业在生态上加倍蓬勃。
2.the non-comercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community是所有复合句的主句部门,焦点动词是...are recognized as...异常质朴的被静态。主语non-commercial tree species可以直接翻译为:非经济类林木,着实就是“公益林”。native forest community是“原始森林群落”的意思,其中commnunity浅易翻译为“社区”,这里指生物学上的“群落”。以是,这个句子可以直译为:非经济类林木被以为是原始森林群落的成员。但是推敲到主语是“林木”,以是说“成员”较量不切合习气,调剂为“原始森林群落的一部门”。
3.To be preserved as such, within reason是状语。其中as such是“异常”的意思。所有状语部门很质朴,原文直接在前面叙述,汉语译文也能够或许一样出来:异常应当遭到掩护,在公正的规模内。也能够或许翻译为:异常应当遭到公正的掩护。
参考译文:
在欧洲,其林业在生态上加倍蓬勃,公益林木被以为是原始森林群落的一部门,异常应当取得公正掩护。
50)It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.
本句话也较量质朴。
It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate是所有句子的主干部门。焦点动词是tend to...,同时and毗连了两个不定式to ignore和to eliminate。首先,代词it在所有句子的主语部门,最好指代明确。看上文To sum up:a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided.(总之,一个仅仅培植在利己基础上的掩护系统是异常平衡的)就知道,it应当指的是上文的这类不雅不雅点。以是,It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate...,可以翻译为“这类不雅不雅点有能够会忽视,而且是以事实会扫除...”。
many elements in the land community是上述主干中ignore和eliminate这两个动词的宾语。较量质朴,可以直接翻译为:土地群落中的许多因素。
that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning是but并列的两个that指导的定语从句,润饰上文的many elements。由于这个定语从句前面还带了一个并列句,以是可以后置翻译,接纳重复先行词的要领。以是,that lack commercial value可以直接翻译为:这些因素缺乏商业价值。but that are essential to its healthy functioning是第二个that定语从句。其中to its healthy functioning是指“关于土地的安康运作而言”。“安康运作”这个翻译是完全可以的,我习气翻译为“安康机制”。以是,前面第二个定语从句可以直接翻译为:但是对土地的安康机制而言,他们却相当主要。

文章泉源:2010考研英语浏览翻译