1996考研英语翻译

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1996考研英语翻译详细简介以下,欲望可以赞助到您:
The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes.(71)Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs.Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.Some,however,are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take,by persons in authority,act to alter the growth pattern of different areas.This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable;but it is a frightening trend.(72)This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.It can be predicted,however,that from time to time,questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers.It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order.(73)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
This kind of support,like all government support,requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds.Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straight forward.But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult.The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting“good”as opposed to“bad”science,but a valid determination is difficult to make.Generally,the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory.(74)However,the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the worlds more fascinating and delightful aspects.(75)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past,giving rise to new standards of elegance.
真题剖析
剖析:
71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
句子剖析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. / Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science / being to some extent self-accelerating.
第二、句子的结构:
这是两个质朴句。在所有英译汉真题中,划线部门都是一个句子,要么是一个质朴句,要么是一个复合句,由两个质朴句组成一个考题这是唯一的一次。这两个质朴句都是主系表结构。
1)主干结构是较量句Some... are... reasonable results of... Others are reasonable consequences of...
2) particular advances前面有多重定语in science being to some extent self-accelerating.
第三、词的处置赏罚赏罚:
 ①Some of these causes直译为“这些启事中的一些”,凭证汉语习气可译为“其中一些启事”。重视:these在此为指导代词,由于它润饰名词,相当于形貌词,浅易直接翻译成代词,而不须要译成名词。但假定泛起表达不清,或许填补诠释以后更清晰,则可以凭证文章的意思加形貌词或许译成名词。(参见下面第72题关于this trend和2003年第63题关于this study的诠释。)
②reasonable results公正的效果,一定效果
③others代词=other reasons,应译成名词“其他启事”。
④reasonable consequences=reasonable results
⑤particular advances in science迷信中的特定生长
⑥being self_accelerating分词短语,润饰名词science。accelerate意为“加速”,self_accelerating意为“自我加速的”。
⑦to some extent在某种水平上
to...extent意为“在…水平上”,其他例子如:
to a large(或great) extent在很洪水平上
to that extent到谁人水平
to an (或a certain) extent在一定水平上
are... results of 是……的效果,来自于
完全的译文:
在这些启事中,有些完全是天可是然地来自社会需求,此外一些则是由于迷信在一定水平上自我加速而发生某些特定生长的一定效果。
72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
句子剖析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion / that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment / cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个多重复合句。This trend began是主谓结构的主句,during the Second World War是介词短语作状语润饰主句,when several governments came to the conclusion是定语从句润饰the Second World War, that the specific demands cannot be foreseen是名词conclusion的同位语从句,而that a government wants to make是润饰the specific demands的定语从句,of its scientific establishment是润饰make的状语,in detail是润饰foreseen的状语。
第三、词的处置赏罚赏罚:
①This trend译成“这类趋势”是可以吸收的,由于this是指导代词,可以直接翻译,但假定按前面句子的意思填补成“这类恐怖的趋势”虽然是更好的做法。(参见1995年第71题关于the target及2003年第63题关于this study的诠释)
②when指导定语从句重视:when指导定语从句不克不及与指导时间状语从句相混淆,虽然也不克不及译成“当…的时间”。when指导定语从句时前面浅易有体现时间的名词作先行词,假定是之前时,when译成“其时”、“其时”、“在谁人时间”,假定是未来时,则译成“到时”、“届时”,有时间还可以译成“然后”、“随后”。
请看下面的例子:
The Queen will visit the small town in April, when she will open the new hospital.
女王将于四月会见小镇,到时(或届时)她要掌管这家新医院的休业仪式。
I expect to be there no longer than two days, when I shall return.
我预计至少在那儿呆两天,随后我就回来。
题中when前面的先行词是the Second World War,由于句子里用的是之前时,when是以翻译成“其时”或“那时”。(参见2001年第73题关于when的诠释)
③came to the conclusion得出了这样的结论
④that指导同位语从句,与名词conclusion是同位关系。
重视:英语中that指导同位语从句与that指导定语从句很容易混淆,现在我们来看一看它们的差异:
a.同位语从句与先行词是相等的关系,定语从句与先行词是润饰的关系。请较量:b. He heard the news that his team had won.(the news=his team had won, that指导同位语从句)
他听到他们队获胜的新闻。
It is a question that needs very careful consideration.(that从句润饰名词question,以是是定语从句)
这是一个须要认真推敲的效果。
b.在同位语从句中,that只是一个连词,不充当从句的任何因素;而在定语从句中,that必须充当句子的一个因素(主语、宾语等等)。请较量:
The fact that the prisoner was guilty was plain to everybody.(that不充当句子的任何因素,以是指导同位语从句)
这个罪人有罪的现实人人都很清晰。
The news that appeared in the paper this morning was well received.(that充当从句的主语,以是指导定语从句)
明天破晓报纸上刊登的新闻惹起了很大的回声。
c.充当定语从句先行词的名词是无限的,而充当同位语从句先行词的名词是无限的
一些体现归纳综合意义的笼统名词:assumption, fact, idea, news, belief, message, proposal, proposition, evidence, proof, possibility, suggestion, feeling等。例如:
Obviously there was little probability that they would succeed, but they didn't mind.(同位语从句)
很显着,他们告成的能够性极小,但是他们不在乎。
I have a feeling that our team is going to win.(同位语从句)
我有一种感应,那就是我们的球队将取胜。
We'll be there tomorrow on the assumption that it doesn't rain.(同位语从句)
假定不下雨,我们明天就去那里。
同位语从句的翻译
同位语从句的翻译与定语从句的翻译很类似,假似乎位语从句较质朴,浅易接纳合译,that不用翻译出来;假定较为严重,则接纳拆译,这时间间that经常译成“即”、“那就是”之类的词,或应用冒号、破折号之类的标点;有时则凭证详细的用词译成状语从句。(三种情形都可参见下面的举例)
题中that指导的同位语从句要么用冒号来体现,要么译成“那就是”。
⑤that a government wants to make of...在这个定语从句中,由于有a government作从句主语,that只能在从句中作宾语。
重视:关于that在定语从句中作宾语(参见1994年第72题关于that在定语从句中作主语和1997年第71题关于that在定语从句中的省略):that指导定语从句、同时在从句中做宾语是英译汉的一个主要考点,我们不要以为that不作从句主语便可以抓紧当心,动词前面缺乏宾语经常会使所有句子没法明确或改变句子的意思。请看这样一个例子:
A report that he stole was ultimately sent to the police.
这是一个歧义句。假定把that从句明确为定语从句,that就是关系代词,充当从句谓语动词stole的宾语,所有句子应当译成:他偷来的一份申报事实送到了警员局。假定把that从句明确为同位语从句,that则是一个连词,不充当任何句子因素,而stole为不及动词,所有句子应当译为:关于他阻拦偷窃的一份申报事实送到了警员局。是以,定语从句that a government wants to make of...现实上即是说a government wants to make specific demands of..., make demands of...是个动词短语,意为“对…提要求”。所有从句可译为:一个政府想要对…提出的详细请求。
⑥scientific establishment科研机构
重视:establishment在四级考试纲目中就曾经供应了“机构”的诠释,考研纲目里依然有“机构”这个词义,但知道这一用法的人着实不多。这诠释有些单词没有我们想像的那么质朴,作为考研考生应当明确这一点而且寻觅处置赏罚赏罚效果的措施。现实上,我们可以从英语喜欢用笼统表达,而汉语喜欢用详细表达这一特点找到突破口,首先一定这个词不克不及明确成笼统的“培植”,然后不雅不雅察文章中能否供应了线索,效果我们可以在这个句子前面找到treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine(把迷信establishment看作是一种资源或许一台机械),而“迷信资源”或许“迷信机械”是可让我们遐想到“科研机构”的。(参见1999年第72题关于intellectual discipline的诠释)
⑦cannot be foreseen直译“没法被预感”,将自动变自动表达更自然:“没法预感”。
⑧in detail习用法,意为“详细地”。例如:
explore a topic in some detail较详细地探讨一个效果
work out a plan in great detail极详细地制订妄图
the news in detail新闻的详细内容
完全的译文:
这类趋势始于第二次天下大战时代,其时一些国家确政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的详细请求通常是没法详实预感的。
73)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future.
句子剖析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:This seems mostly effectively done / by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals / but of possible consequence in the future.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个质朴句。This seems...done是句子的主干,by supporting...是介词短语作要领状语,not...but...结构作后置定语润饰名词research。
1)主干结构是系词+之前分词+自动宾语:This seems mostly effectively done by...
2)research前面是两重定语not related to... but of...由此断定related to意思即是of
第三、词的处置赏罚赏罚:
①this代词作主语。前文曾泛起过problem一词,接着又有“…没法预感,可是可以预感的是…,是以…”这样的叙述,this显着是指代名词“problem”。
②mostly意为“简直所有地,主要地,浅易地,通常”。
重视:
mostly不克不及与most(最)相混淆,请看下面关于mostly的用法举例:
The work is mostly done.
那使命差不多已完成了。
The men at the party were mostly fairly young.
宴会上的须眉多数相昔时轻。
She had had a very exciting career, mostly in Birmingham.
她曾有过一个富有慰藉性的生涯,主要在伯明翰。
Mostly, they will do it by themselves.
他们通常会自己着手做这事的。
③done do在英语里被称为是代动词,可以体现许多动词的意思。例如:
do good deeds(做好事)
do some repair(修理器械)
do the washing(洗衣物)
do government missions推行政府使命
do honour to the dead向去世者致敬
do short stories写短篇小说
do one's hair做头发
do a garden照顾花园
done在句中必须与this联络起来明确,凭证this指代名词problem,done的意思应当是“处置赏罚赏罚”。
④by doing sth.经常体现手段、措施或要领,译为“经由历程……”、“以……”。
例如:
He earns his living by teaching.他以教书为生。
⑤not...but...浅易否认前者、一定后者,译为“不是…而是…”,“没有…但有…”。例如:
It's not water, but alcohol.这不是水,而是酒精。
Some satellite relay stations relay radio waves to the earth but they receive the waves not from the earth, but from other space.
某些卫星中继站向地球转播无线电波,但它们不是从地球而是从外层太空吸收无线电波。
从下面的例子可以看出,not...but...在应用中有一个凹陷的特点,那就是not和but前面的用词经常是对称的:第一例都是名词(water和alcohol),第二例都是介词短语(from the earth和from other space)。题中的not...but...结构是后置定语,not和but前面的用词应当都能润饰名词。related是之前分词,of consequence是介词短语,都可以润饰名词,由于之前分词可作形貌词用,而of+名词=形貌词(如The book is of great interest.=The book is very interesting.), of consequence可明确为“有用果的”或“发生效果的”。是以后置定语not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future所有可以翻译成:与直接目的没有关系,但是在未来却有能够发生效果。
完全的译文:
给某些与以后目的有关但未来能够发生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有用地处置赏罚赏罚这一效果。
74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.
句子剖析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:However, the world is so made / that elegant systems are in principle unable to / deal with some of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.
第二、句子的结构:
 这是一个复合句。The world is so made是主句,that指导的是效果状语从句。其中elegant systems are...unable to deal with... aspects是从句的主干,in principle是介词短语作状语,some of the world's more fascinating and delightful都是定语,润饰名词aspects。
1)主干结构是the world is so... that...
2) some前面有多重定语of the world's more fascination and delightful aspects.第三、词的处置赏罚赏罚:
 ①the world is so made直译“天下就是这样组成的”,意译“天下就是云云”。
②elegant systems elegant纲目诠释为“优雅的,优美的,细腻的”,这些词义与system(系统、系统)都不克不及搭配,以是引申为“完善的”。重视以下例子中elegant的翻译:
elegant manners优雅的风度
an elegant dress漂亮雅致的女服
a set of books with elegant bindings一套装帧细腻的书籍
a life of elegant ease优裕闲适的生涯
an elegant style of writing优雅的文体
an elegant piece of reasoning简要明确的论证
an elegant wine上等好酒
②in principle习用法,意为“准绳上,基本上,概略上,在现实上”。
例如:
We agree in principle but we dislike your methods.
我们准绳上赞成,但我们不喜欢你应用的措施。
There's no reason in principle why man shouldn't one day travel to the most distant stars.
从现实上讲,没有理由以为人类弗成能在未来的某一天飞向悠远的星球。
③deal with...aspects凭证搭配准绳译为“处置赏罚赏罚…效果”。
重视:这是一个被脱离的动宾结构,aspects的词义定位一定要以deal with为凭证。
完全的译文:
可是,天下就是云云,完善的系同浅易而言是没法处置赏罚赏罚天下上某些加倍引人入胜的课题的。
75)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.
句子剖析:
第一、句子可以拆分为三段:New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future / as they have in the past, / giving rise to new standards of elegance.
第二、句子的结构:
这是一个复合句。New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought m ust arise in the future是主句,as they have in the past是要领状语从句,giving rise to new standards of elegance是现在分词短语作状语表陪偕行动。
第三、词的处置赏罚赏罚:
①new forms of thought新的头脑要领
②as well as=and例如:
Hiking is good exercise as well as fun.
徒步旅行很风兴趣,也是很好的磨炼。
In theory as well as in practice, the idea is unsound.
这个主意在现实上和现实中都站不住脚。
③new subjects for thought新的头脑工具(或内容)
重视:
subject在此不克不及明确成“学科”或“效果”,由于它与前面的form组成一对看法,以是应当翻译成“工具”或“内容”。(参见1999年第74题关于technique的诠释)
④must此处不克不及明确成“必须”,而应当明确成“一定要,一定会,一定会”。其他例子如:
What must be will be.
注定要发生的事总要发生。
All men must die.
人都有一去世。
If he had really been there, I must have seen him.
假定其时他真的在那里的话,我一定会看到他。
⑤arise发生,泛起(参见1999年第72题、2000年第75题)
重视:
arise和rise很容易混淆,由于它们在词义上都是指“由低处向高处移动”,而且都是不及物动词,但rise是个浅易词,用得越发普遍,而arise浅易用作例如意义,其主语经常是an argument, a problem, a quarrel, a doubt, a question, a storm, a difficulty, a disagreement之类的笼统名词。试较量:
The wounded man fell and was too weak to rise.
这个受伤的人倒下了,虚弱得站不起来。
A democratic movement has arisen.
掀起了一场夷易近主运动。
New problems seem to arise every day.
似乎天天都泛起新效果。
⑥as they have in the past这个从句省略了动词arisen, as在此是连词,意为“正如”。代词they指划线句子中的news forms of thought和new subjects for thought,由于指代工具有明确的翻译,而且所指也较量明确,这时间间的代词可以译成代词。(参见1997年第71题、75题和1998年第71题)
⑦give rise to是个习气表达法,意为“惹起、招致”。例如:
These bad conditions have given rise to a lot of crime.
这些低劣的情形招致了许多犯罪。
It would give rise to a great deal of conflict.
这将惹起频仍的抵触。
重视giving rise to在英语里表陪偕行动,在译文里却表效果。
⑧elegance elegant的名词,在此译为“完善”。
完全的译文:
同之前一样,未来一定会泛起新的头脑要领和新的头脑工具,给完善以新的尺度。
全文译文
迷信研究的种种领域的相关生长,存在若干启事。(71)在这些启事中,有些完全是天可是然地来自社会需求。此外一些则是由于迷信在一定水平上自我加速而发生某些特定生长的一定效果。可是,有些生长速率的差异其启事就不尽公正,这是由于某些威望人干对迷信现实研究应接纳何种形式有先入为主的想法主意主意,这些想法主意主意起了改变不合迷信领域的生长形式的作用。这是一个新效果,或许着实不是是弗成防止的效果,但其趋势却令人担忧。(72)这类趋势始于第二次天下大战时代,其时一些国家确政府得出结论:政府要向科研机构提出的详细请求通常是没法详实预感的。可是,人们可以预感,经常会泛起一些效果请求迷信做出详细的回复。是以,将科研机构视为一种资源或一台机械,应保持其优胜的运转状态。这样做通常是很有价值的。(73)给某些与以后目的有关但未来能够发生影响的科研以支持,看来通常能有用地处置赏罚赏罚这个效果。
此种赞助也与所有政府赞助一样,须要决议合适的投资工具。凭证某一项目能否有用来做出决议妄图是明确无误的。但是在几个都没有直接功效的项目中,要做出决议就特殊艰辛。赞助机构的目的是支持“好”的迷信,而不赞助“坏”的迷信,那是值得赞美的。可是要做出准确的决议却是艰辛的。人们经常将好迷信与该迷信能否有才干提出一套完善的现实混淆起来。(74)可是,天下就是云云,完善的系同浅易是没法处置赏罚赏罚世上某些加倍引人入胜的课题的。(75)同之前一样,未来一定会泛起新的头脑要领和新的头脑工具,给完善以新的尺度。

文章泉源:1996考研英语翻译