2015年考研英语一真题及谜底

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2015年考研英语一真题原文及谜底剖析完全版

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_.

The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_.

While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, “Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.”

The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_”functional Kinship” of being friends with_(14)_!

One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor.

The findings do not simply explain people’s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population.

1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what

【谜底】[D] what

【剖析】该题考察的是语法知识。凭证句子结构和选项的特点,可以断定出空格处应填隶属连词指导从句;再凭证句子的内容,可以看出该从句是一项研究的相关内容(what),不是指研究的时间(when), 启事(why)和要领(how),是以,该题的谜底为what。

2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised

【谜底】[B] concluded

【剖析】以后题所在的句子的前后内容可以断定出,that is_______ 中的that是指第一句话的内容(同伙与我们基因上的相关性),很显着是研究得出的结论。是以,谜底为concluded。

3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by

【谜底】[C] on

【剖析】凭证空格所在句子的内容(研究对1932分希奇的受试者阻拦剖析)断定出阻拦剖析的工具是1932 unique subjects。conduct analysis on…是结实表达。

4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected

【谜底】[A] compared

【剖析】该空格所在的句子是which 指导的定语从句润饰study,意思是:对几对基因不相关的同伙和生疏人阻拦_______。由于“研究”的内容是关于同伙间基因上的相关性效果,以是完全的意思应当是:对几对基因不相关的同伙和生疏人阻拦较量。以是最好谜底为compared。

5. [A] tests [B] objects [C]samples [D] examples

【谜底】[C] samples

【剖析】凭证空格的前后内容断定,到第五个空为止,文章都在讲实验历程,和实验工具,第五个空格所在句子的内容是:类似的人们都用于实验中的这两类______。以是凭证曲折文语境和内容,应被选与实验工具相对应的samples(样例).是以,谜底是samples。

6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible

【谜底】[A] insignificant

【剖析】空的语境为:虽然这1%看起来似乎____,然则遗传学家可不这么以为。绝后后组成较量转机的逻辑关系,而从后文枚举的例子中可知遗传学家James Fowler对这1%基因的态度是一定的,故谜底为A。

7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know

【谜底】[D] know

【剖析】空的语境为:大多数人以致不____他们隔三代的表亲,但却想法主意选择那些____我们亲戚的人作为同伙。填入的词必须知足前后句之间的转机逻辑关系,四个选项带入,只需D选项切合曲折文语义。

8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass

【谜底】[A] resemble

【剖析】空的语境为:大多数人以致不熟悉他们隔三代的表亲,但却想法主意选择那些____我们亲戚的人作为同伙。凭证全文中央:基因上的类似性,可知本题选择A。

9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus

【谜底】[B] also

【剖析】空所在的句子开首用“The study…”,显着这是对上文话题的一连叙述,前文指出研究发现同伙与我们有1%的基因关系,而空所在句“the genes for smell were something shared in friends”在进一步详细议论辩说该话题,前后之间是顺接关系,故谜底为B。

10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps

【谜底】[D] Perhaps

【剖析】从选项和文字中句子结构可以断定,空格处请求填入一个能够体现前后两个句子逻辑关系的副词,绝后的句子谈到“为甚么在嗅觉基因方面存在类似性还很难明释”,空后却紧接着对此得出一个相关结论,很显着是抵触的,以是此结论只能是一种不愿定的推想,故谜底为D。

11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like

【谜底】[B] to

【剖析】该题为介词选择题。后半句泛起较量级,可见是和前文组成较量关系,是以和上半句介词保持不合,用介词to。该句翻译:它(这类类似性)吸引我们到类似的情形,而且使我们越发类似。是以谜底为to。

12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit

【谜底】[A] drive

【剖析】该句意思为:许多机制合营作用,从而_____我们选择基因类似的同伙,_____和_____交同伙的“功效关系”。凭证曲折文可知,此地方填入动词需切合结构_____sb. in doing sth,B选项observe(不雅不雅察,遵守)和C选项confuse(嫌疑)均无此用法。切合该结构只需A选项drive(使令)和D选项limit(限制)。凭证曲折文可得知:这些机制使令我们选择基因类似的同伙,切合文章主题。假定选限制则为反向滋扰。是以谜底为drive。

13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with

【谜底】[B] rather than

【剖析】所填词为逻辑关系短语,绝后说选择基因类似的同伙,空后说具有“适用关系”的同伙,可知前后为对立关系,而且凭证文章主题,可知一定前者而否认后者,可锁定B选项rather than。A选项according to(凭证)没有体现出对立及取舍关系,是以扫除;C选项regardless of(岂论)表让步关系,滋扰性较强,但文章更强调取前舍后,是以扫除;D选项along with(陪同)表顺接,故扫除。故谜底为rather than。

14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits

【谜底】[D] benefits

【剖析】凭证前文functional kinship(适用关系)可得出D选项benefits(利益),前后组成照顾。A选项chances(时机)、B选项responses(回声)、C选项missions(使命)均不切合题意。故谜底为benefits。

15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier

【谜底】[C] faster

【剖析】该句为:evolving ______ than other genes(比其他基因退步得______). 凭证同词复现,我们找到该段第二句话中:human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years(人类退步在之前30000年间提速)。C 选项faster与下文picked pace(加速)组成照顾,故谜底为faster。

16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express

【谜底】[C] understand

【剖析】此题考察动词。凭证语意。空格前面是一个why指导的宾语从句,意为“人类退步在之前三万年间得以加速的启事”,体现这一研究的效果和意义。能与这一宾语从句组成搭配的只需C选项understand。A选项forecast“意料”与“之前三万年”相抵触,B选项remember“记着”和D选项“express”均不切合文意。

17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive

【谜底】[B] contributory

【剖析】此空须要填入一个形貌词,表达社会情形对人类前进所起到的作用。help,pick pace这两个词表达的都是起劲的寄义,是以此处须要填入一个带有褒义的情绪色彩的词, 是以扫除A选项“弗成意料的”和D选项“破损性的”; B 而C选项“可控的”,与语意有关;是以准确谜底为B选项contributory“促进的”。

18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency

【谜底】[D] tendency

【剖析】此处进一步陈述这一研究的结论。A选项endeavor“起劲”,B选项“决议”,C选项“部署”,D选项“偏向”。本文的主旨重在诠释人们在交同伙的不自觉的一种偏向,而非经由历程人为的无熟悉的行动来选择同伙。是以准确谜底为D。

19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic

【谜底】[C] ethnic

【剖析】联络文意,人们普遍欲望和有类似基因配景的人。C选项ethnic意为“种族的,夷易近族的”,是对上文中一再再三重复泛起的genes,和下文的the same population的同义复现。是以准确谜底为C。 A选项political“政治的”, B选项“宗教的”,D选项“经济的”均不切合原文文意。

20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell

【谜底】[A] see

【剖析】此处考察动词,动词势须要看前后搭配。see that 组成结实词组,意为“务必使……”,切合文意,即:纵然所有的受访者都具有欧洲血缘,(研究者们)依然悉心确保所有的受访者、同伙和生疏人都来自于统一群种。选项B“展示”,选项C“证实”,选项D“分辨”均无此寄义,且不切合文意。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted “kings don’t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.” But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle?

The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity.

It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs’ continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.

Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today – embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.

The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.

While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.

It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy’s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies.

21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain

[A] used turn enjoy high public support

[B] was unpopular among European royals

[C] cased his relationship with his rivals

[D]ended his reign in embarrassment

【谜底】[D] ended his reign in embarrassment

【剖析】现实细节题。凭证题干请求,定位到文章前两段。而文章第一段的第二句话提到“But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down.”(在比来的欧洲选举中,令人为难的丑闻和受迎接的共和党,均迫使Carlos收回前言并退位)。D选项中,“stand down”是“end reign”的同义置换,且“embarrassment”与招致Carlos去职的启事“embarrassing scandals”是相照顾的。故D是准确谜底。A、B、C均属于生事生非。

22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly

[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

[B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

[C] to give voter more public figures to look up to

[D]due to their everlasting political embodiment

【谜底】[A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

【剖析】现实细节题。凭证题干要害词“monarchs”和“heads of state”,定位到第三段的最后一句话“...most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure.”(大多数的王室幸存上去是由于他们让选夷易近可以防止除寻觅一个不受争议且受尊重的夷易近众人物的艰辛)其中“non-controversial but respected public figure”正是A选项中“undoubted and respectable status”的同义置换。故A是准确谜底。

23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

[A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth

[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

[C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families

[D]The nobility’s adherence to their privileges

【谜底】[B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies

【剖析】现实细节题。定位在第四段的最后一句话“...it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states.”(瑰异的是,富有的贵族居然照旧现代夷易近主国家的意味焦点)其中,the symbolic heart of modern democratic states是题干the role of the nobility in modern democracies的同义置换。

24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

[A] takes a rough line on political issues

[B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised

[C] takes republicans as his potential allies

[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

【谜底】[D] fails to adapt himself to his future role

【剖析】现实细节题。该题考察:英国皇家贵族们异常畏惧是由于查尔斯……。凭证题干专著名词Charles可定位到文章第七段“the danger will come with Charles...worst enemies”。本段指出“风险源自于查尔斯,他生涯奢侈,品级不雅不雅念显着;而且他没无熟悉到君王的幸存很洪水平上取决于君王供应了公共服务,同时,查尔斯着实不知道,国王才是君主制度最大的对头,而非共和党人。”选项A意为:看待政治效果态度强硬,文章并没有提及;选项B意为,看待建议的生涯要领改变掉落败,文章中提到生涯要领,但并未提到改变生涯要领;选项C意为:视共和党人为潜在盟友,文章中提到,共和党人着实不是最大的对头,并未指明把共和党人视为盟友,属于偷换看法,选项D意为:顺应未来身份掉落败,文章指出查尔斯的生涯要领,天下不雅不雅和他关于君王制度的弱点明确均为身份特另外他的不准确言行,与选项D表述吻合,故为准确谜底。

25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

[B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

[D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

【谜底】[C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

【剖析】主旨大意题。该题考察四个选项中哪个可作为文章最好效果。文章从西班牙国王Carlos退位事宜切入,主要议论辩说当下欧洲君王制度所存在的效果,着实不是议论辩说查尔斯的事宜,便可扫除选项B“查尔斯—继位焦炙”和D“查尔斯—应对威逼迟缓”,而选项A“卡洛斯—荣辱并存” 和C“卡洛斯—欧洲君王们的前车之鉴”中,选项A属于细节信息,不克不及归纳综合文章大意,选项C可归纳综合,故为准确谜底。另外,文章主题词Monarch只需在选项C中泛起,也可作为迅速解题的凭证。

Text 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justices can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smart phone — a vast storehouse of digital information — is similar to, say, rifling through a suspect’s purse. The court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they sift through the wallet or pocketbook of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home. A smart phone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.

Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy. But keeping sensitive information on these devices is increasingly a requirement of normal life. Citizens still have a right to expect private documents to remain private and protected by the Constitution’s prohibition on unreasonable searches.

As so often is the case, stating that principle doesn’t ease the challenge of line-drawing. In many cases, it would not be overly onerous for authorities to obtain a warrant to search through phone contents. They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe, urgent circumstances, and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is pending. The court, though, may want to allow room for police to cite situations where they are entitled to more freedom.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a virtual necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.

26. The Supreme Court will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

[A] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[B] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

[C] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

[D]prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

【谜底】[C] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

【剖析】这是一道现实细节题,凭证题干要害词The Supreme Court回文定位到第一段的第二句话,“The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search for the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest”,逐一比对选项,原文中的“police can search for the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant”与选项C “check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized”是同义替换,其他选项均是有关选项。

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] disapproval.

[B] indifference.

[C] tolerance.

[D]cautiousness.

【谜底】[A] disapproval

【剖析】本题是不雅不雅点态度题,考察作者的态度。凭证题干要害词“California’s argument”,可以定位到文章第四段第一句“They should start by discarding California’s lame argument…”。由第四段第一句话中的“discard(屏弃)”和“lame(没有胜过力的)”可以看出作者关于California’s argument 是不支持的态度,是以选A。

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to

[A] getting into one’s residence.

[B] handling one’s historical records.

[C] scanning one’s correspondences.

[D] going through one’s wallet.

【谜底】[A] getting into one’s residence

【剖析】凭证题干要害词the author believes和“exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to”可回文定位到文章第四段第三句“But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home”,选项A语义与之不合,其中,getting into与entering对应,one’s residence与his or her home对应,故A选项为准确谜底。

29. The author believes that exploring one’s phone contents is comparable to

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected.

[D] phones are used to store sensitive information.

【谜底】[C] citizens’ privacy is not effectively protected

【剖析】凭证题干信息In paragraphs 5and 6定位第5段第一句话“Americans should take steps to protect their digital privacy.落选6段最后一句话,...and they could take reasonable measures to.....,可推知作者的记挂,是以谜底为C.

30. Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

[A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

[B] new technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

[C]California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

[D]principles of the Constitution should never be altered

【谜底】[A] the Constitution should be implemented flexibly

【剖析】这是一道例证题,凭证题干要害词Orin Kerr可以回文定位到文章最后一段。作者援用Orin Kerr这小我的较量是为相识释相关的论点。剖析最后一段结构可知,最后一段的第三句和第四句都是在叙述该例子自己,以是相关论点应当往前面找,即是第二句话,“New,disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protection”,选项A与之同义替换,其中,be implemented和applications对应,novel和flexibly对应。

Text 3

The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.

“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors(SBoRE). Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’ was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group. He says he expects the board to “play primarily an advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.”

John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the policy is “a most welcome step forward” and “long overdue.” “Most journals are weak in statistical review, and this damages the quality of what they publish. I think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review is more essential than expert review,” he says. But he noted that biomedical journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical review.

Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research, according to David Vaux, a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he wrote in 2012, but journals should also take a tougher line, “engaging reviewers who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process”. Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify ‘the papers that need scrutiny’ in the first place”.

31. It can be learned from Paragraph 1 that

[A] Science intends to simplify their peer-review process.

[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks.

[C] few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.

[D] lack of data analysis is common in research projects.

【谜底】[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks

【剖析】推理题。凭证题干直接定位到第一段。解题要害在于第二句The policy follows similar efforts from other journals(该政策取得其他期刊类似的起劲)the policy指第一句The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, (《迷信》杂志把统计检查特殊添加到它的同业评审历程当中),由此可直接揣摸出准确谜底为[B] journals are strengthening their statistical checks (各大期刊正在增强统计数字检查)。选项[A]中simplify与原文语意不符,以是选项C、D属于生事生非。

32. The phrase “flagged up” (Para. 2) is the closest in meaning to

[A] found.

[B] marked.

[C] revised.

[D] stored.

【谜底】[C] marked

【剖析】词义题。凭证题干定位回第二段第三句Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, (杂志外部编辑将经由历程更多的审查来标志手稿)。文中应用代入法,把各选项代入句中替换,可知选项C marked(标志)为准确谜底。选项A found(发现,找到),选项B revised(修改),选项 D stored(存储)。

33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may

[A] pose a threat to all its peers.

[B] meet with strong opposition.

[C] increase Science’s circulation.

[D]set an example for other journals.

【谜底】[D] set an example for other journals

【剖析】细节题。凭证题干要害词Giovanni Parmigiani,the establishment of the SBoRE和may定位到第四段的最后一句“… but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science。选项中的example是model的同义替换,others journals是原文中a larger group of publishing places的同义替换。

文章中泛起了hopefully,体现作者起劲的态度。选项A中的threat,选项B中的opposition划分表达负向消极的态度,以是弱点。选项C increase Science’s circulation(增添《迷信》杂志的刊行量),文章并未提到,属于生事生非。

34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

[A] adds to researchers’ workload.

[B] diminishes the role of reviewers.

[C] has room for further improvement.

[D]is to fail in the foreseeable future

【谜底】[C] has room for further improvement

【剖析】细节题。由题干要害词David Vaux和Science,可定位到第六段最后一句。Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify ‘the papers that need scrutiny’ in the first place”. (《迷信》杂志把论文推给统计员审核有一些优点,但弱点是它依附于审稿编委会首先须要一定审查的文件。)

选项A中workload,选项B. diminish the role of reviewers和选项D中的foreseeable future没有提到,属于生事生非。

35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

[A] Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers.

[B] Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

[C] Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks

[D] Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

【谜底】A science joins push to screen statistics in papers

【剖析】文章第一段由Science将增添statistical checks引出话题,接上去各段就尔效果McNutt, Giovanni Parmigianni, John Ioannidis, David Vaux提出各自的看法。文中statistical,papers重复提及,可知该词是文中焦点词。选项B和选项D首先扫除,偏离主题,statisticians仅在文中提及,非重点议论辩说内容;选项C与文中主题相差较大,是以扫除。

Text 4

Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter ,Elisabeth ,spoke of the “unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions” Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism ”in society should be profit and the market .But “it’s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit ”.

Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.” This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking .

As the hacking trial concludes – finding guilty ones-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge –the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .This is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds.

In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing.

In today’s world, title has become normal that well—paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business–friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.

The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers.

36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

[A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism

[B] companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices.

[C] governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.

[D]the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.

【谜底】[A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism

【剖析】经由历程题干可以将此题锁定在前两段。第一段指出Elisabeth谈到了“我们许多机构都面临着令人沮丧的正直感的损掉落”。接上去第二句指出这类正直感的损掉落是由于人人普遍以为社会中唯一的分类机制(sorting mechanism)应当是利益和市场。而从第一段最后一句我们看出,她以为“应当是我们人类自己创作缔造我们想要的社会,而不应该是利益”。可见,Elisabeth很不认可现在的这类分类机制(sorting mechanism)和所组成的不良效果,这也正是她以为沮丧的启事。故A选项consequence of the current sorting mechanism(现在这类分类机制的效果)是真正让她沮丧的启事。

37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

[A] Glem Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime

[B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.

[C] Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.

[D] phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.

【谜底】[B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking

【剖析】第三段第一句指出,Andy Coulson由于介下手机黑客案件被裁定有罪,可是他的前任却被认定是无罪的。经由历程这一事宜,作者得出由此组成的品行沦丧普遍效果依然存在(the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands)。即依然存在一些人没有被裁定有罪。接着文章指出了在新闻业中,曾经有记者被认定非法侵入用户手机。而尚有一些在期待审讯(others await trial),由此可以推出,将会有更多的记者由于触及手机黑客案件而被裁定有罪。故准确谜底为选项B。

38. The author believes the Rebekah Books’s deference

[A] revealed a cunning personality

[B] centered on trivial issues

[C] was hardly convincing

[D] was part of a conspiracy

【谜底】[C] was hardly convincing

【剖析】凭证题干中的“defence”可以回文定位到文章第四段最后一句话。该句指出Ms. Brooks辩护告成的要害在于她对这个事宜一无所知(she knew nothing)。而作者在该段第一句话中指出,品行损掉落不只展现在普遍存在的手机黑客这一现实上,更展现在一些审讯案件所应用的条目上,其中最震惊的就是对Ms. Brooks的审讯。可见,作者对该案的审讯持否认态度。是以,以为她的辩护是弗成信的。故准确谜底为C。

39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

[A] generally distorted values

[B] unfair wealth distribution

[C] a marginalized lifestyle

[D] a rigid moral cote

【谜底】[A] (generally distorted values)

【剖析】经由历程题干中的“collective doctrine”可以直接定位到文中第五段第三行。该句指出“collective doctrine”是社会的分类机制应当是利益。接上去可以看出,那些真正起作用的是那些体现利益的词“efficiency,flexibility,shareholder value,business-friendly,wealth generation…”,而体现公正、正义的词(Justice,fairness,tolerance…)则被置于边缘。可见,这类教义(collective doctrine)只关注利益,而忽视了公正与正义,这显着是一种曲解的价值不雅不雅。故A选项准确。

40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

[A] The quality of writing is of primary importance.

[B] Common humanity is central news reporting.

[C] Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper.

[D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.

【谜底】[C] moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper

【剖析】这是一道开放式推理题。作者在最后一段前两句话指出,新闻报导的目的不是为了促进读者的明确,也不是为了追求公正或许背背人类共有的人性,而是经由历程追求刊行量的影响率来破损人们的生涯。即文章从一泉源指出的一个效果,为了追求利益而组成了正值感的损掉落。从“ruin”一词可以看出,作者抵新闻记者的这一行动持否认的态度。而且经由历程Ms. Brooks女士的行动加以左证。作者经由历程正话反说的要领,凹陷新闻报导历程当中正值感的主要性。故准确谜底为C,moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper(在新闻报导中,品行熟悉很主要),其中moral awareness和integrity是同义交流。

Part B

Directions:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the fist A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your explicit knowledge of English grammar (41) ______you begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved: who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where.

The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just passive assimilation but of active engagement inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and cues (42) _______

Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or “true” meaning that can be read off and clocked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of the text to the world. (43) _______

Such background material inevitably reflects who we are, (44) _______This doesn’t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page-including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns-debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of beliefs and values.

How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45)_______such dimensions of read suggest-as others introduced later in the book will also do-that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It doesn’t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different kinds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.

[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfils the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.

[B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretation but at the same time obscure or even close off others.

[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the contest. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.

[D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended.

[E]You make further inferences, for instance, about how the test may be significant to you, or about its validity—inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.

[F]In plays,novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author’s own thoughts.

[G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to test on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organization or patterning we perceive in a text’s formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.

41【谜底】[C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms...

【剖析】从首段疑问句可以看出文章主题围绕若何浏览来阻拦睁开。41题空在段中央,须要看空处的前一句和后一句,前一句说的是要去明确单词的寄义,并关注句法,尔后一句提及源推想文章语境。以是可以推想出41题空处应当说的是单词语义和语境之间的联系,要害词就是words和context。纵览选项,只需C项切合语境和要害词请求,属同词复现,曲折文语义逻辑联系关系。故准确谜底选C。

42【谜底】[E] You make further inferences, for instance...

【剖析】该题空在段末,须要看空处的前一句和下一段首句,前一句说的是我们经由历程作者给出的一些详细线索来明确寄义,而下一段首句说经由历程这类要领表达,每小我的明确都邑有所不合。以是可以推想出42空处内容要有关凭证作者给的线索推想信息,而且能够会触及不合的人有不合的明确,要害词是infer, the writer和each reader。纵览选项,只需E项切合语境且泛起inferences, the author, personal,属同义词复现。故准确谜底选E。

43【谜底】[G] Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis...

【剖析】空格后泛起显着的指代线索词such background material,以是空格内一定要泛起相关的信息,浏览选项,G选项中textual and contextual material,background与空后线索实现代词指代复现。而且G选项中的rather,与绝后what is in question is not...完成语义逻辑联系关系。一定此选项为准确谜底。

44【谜底】[B] Factors such as the place and period in which...

【剖析】绝后的线索词为who we are,空后的线索为转机逻辑关系,意思是“但这着实不会使得明确仅唯一联系关系或许毫居心义”,要害词为interpretation,relative,pointless,空格中须要泛起与此相联系关系的词汇,浏览前面选项,B选项中泛起原词interpretations,而且此选项中的gender, ethnicity, age, social class与绝后哨索词who we are 相对应。一定准确谜底为此选项。

45【谜底】[A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond...

【剖析】空格在最后一段的中央,线索须要从空格前后寻觅,绝后为归纳综合的句子,要害词为particular interest,空后泛起代词指代的线索,such dimensions of reading suggest,联络要害词可以得知空格所填的部特殊容须要触及到“浏览的兴趣和浏览维度”,浏览选项,A选项提到的诸多效果正是有关念书的兴趣和浏览的维度。是以一定A为准确选项。

Section III Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration—one of the great folk wanderings of history—swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world.

48) But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay.

“To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief.” said one recorder of events, “The air at twelve leagues’ distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.” The colonists’ first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

46【参考译文】在多种强盛的念头驱动下,此次(移夷易近)运动在一片荒原上培植了一个国家,而且就本质而言,塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和运气运限。

47【参考译文】有两股主要实力组成了美国:一是欧洲夷易近族带来的不合头脑、夷易近俗战斗易近族特点,二是这个新国家在改变这些特点以后组成的影响。

48【参考译文】然则,美国独占的地理条件、不合种族间的相互影响、和在这片蛮荒的新大陆上保持旧序次的万分艰辛,带来了严重的变换。

49【参考译文】十五、十六世纪的探索发清晰了了北美洲,又过了一百多年,第一艘满载移夷易近的航船跨过大西洋驶向这片土地,即现在的美国。

50【参考译文】原始森林树木种类单一,是一座真实的宝库,从缅因州向南一直延伸至乔治亚州。

Section IV Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

You are going to host a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.

You should state reasons for your recommendation.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.

Do not write the address. (10 points)

【参考范文】

Dear Friends,

I am writing to recommend to you a wonderful book, The Seventh Key, which is not only conductive to your study but also beneficial to your life.

The book tells a story that two nephews of an old man try hard to find the seventh key first in order to win the legacy. It discloses the “money-first” attitude and heartlessness of people and tutors people about the life philosophy of “No pains, no gains”. What’s more, the beautiful language in this original English book may contribute to your study of English in listening, speaking, reading and writing.

I hope you would enjoy the book and share your opinion on the next reading session.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should

1) describe the drawing briefly

2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

手机时代的聚会

【参考范文】

Unfolded in the elaborately painted cartoon is a thought-provoking scene: four youngsters are sitting together to have their gathering feast. However, much of their attention has been attached to their mobile cell phones, totally forgetting what they are gathering for. Just as is put in the caption of this cartoon, it is typically a“Dinner party in mobile era.”

This picture is naturally associated with a wide-spreading phenomenon in contemporary society—too much addiction to the mobile phones. Indeed, we have all stepped into an era of getting and staying in touch with others through telecommunication. Each of us seems close to another under this circumstance, but we have to look at the side-effect of the technology: the high-tech electronic products also cut off the face-to-face communication. To be specific, in our daily life, it’s not uncommon that on buses or subways, or walking on the road, we are all playing with phones or pads for recreation, such as reading novels, watching videos or movies, surfing the Internet, and so on, even though we travel with our friends, parents or loved one.

Evidently, we should take a rational attitude towards this issue, but how? The media should promote the awareness of healthy lifestyle among the public, especially the young. Meanwhile, social activities, either in communities or on campuses, should be launched so that people can get back to the real world.

文章泉源:2015年考研英语一真题及谜底