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Read the following text. Choose the best word(S) for each numbered blank and mark A, B ,C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 Points)
As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can't remember 1 we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain 2 , we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments." 3 seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a(an) 4 impact on our professional, social, and personal 5 .
Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done. It 6 out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental 7 can significantly improve our basic cognitive 8 . Thinking is essentially a 9 of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to 10 in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. 11 , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate 12 mental effort.
Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step 13 and developed the first "brain training program" designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental 14 .
The Web-based program 15 you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps 16 of your progress and provides detailed feedback 17 your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it 18 modifies and enhances the games you play to 19 on the strengths you are developing--much like a(n) 20 exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.
12.[A]according to[B]regardless of[C]apart from[D]instead of
1. [尺度谜底] [A]
[选项剖析] 本题考察连词。凭证曲折文意思，首先可以扫除[B][C][D]。这句话中 where 指导一个状语语从句，主要是说记不清把钥匙放在那里了。
2. [尺度谜底] [B]
[选项剖析] As the brain 2 we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments这句话的意思是“由于大脑 2 我们称这些情形为“瞬间性晚年聪慧”，由此可以扫除[A] 和 [C]。[D]collapse意为：使崩裂，使瓦解，不切合题意。fades考察熟词僻意，通常意思为退色，逝去。尚有朽迈的意思，这里就考察是朽迈的意思。早年文可以看出，文章讲的是随着年岁增添，大脑朽迈。以是选[B]
3. [尺度谜底] [D]
[选项剖析] [A] if 体现假定“假定”。[B] Unless “除非，假定不”。[C]Once “一旦”。[D]While，“虽然，可是”表转机。这句话的意思是虽然外面上看起来没甚么，但是风险很大，前后位转机关系，以是选D。
4. [尺度谜底] [C]
[选项剖析] 这四个选项均为形貌词，[A] 体现“不匀称”， [B] 体现“无限的”， [C] 体现“有破损性的，破损的”， [D] 体现“模糊的，艰涩的”。这句话意思是这类精神能量的缺掉落会给我们带来……的影响。凭证曲折文的意思，可以扫除 [A] 和 [D]。而“无限的影响”显着缺乏以表达风险的严重性，故可以扫除[B] 选项。[C] “带来有害的影响”最切相助者意图。
5. [尺度谜底] [A]
[选项剖析] 本句话寄义是这类精神能量的缺掉落会给我们的职业、社交尚有小我……带来有害的影响。[A] wellbeing “幸福”。[B]environment “情形”。[C] relationship “关系”。[D] outlook “展望”。and毗连若干名词，这些名词应当为统一类，职业、社交都是和小我相关，扫除[B] 和[D]，[C] personal relationship就是social的意思，不克不及重复，选择[A]，小我幸福。
6. [尺度谜底] [A]
[选项剖析] [A] it turns out that “原来，着实” 。[B]it finds out that“本文发现”。[C] it points out that“指出”。[D] it figures out that“本文发现”。It代表神经迷信，这句话的意思是愈来愈多的精神学家们都体现，大脑着实跟肌肉一样须要演习运动。这里给出的是神经迷信的结论，是以选择it turns out that
7. [尺度谜底] [C]
[选项剖析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] roundabouts迂回蹊径。[B]responses回应。[C]workouts磨炼，演习。[D]associations协会。[C]workouts磨炼，演习与前文泛起的exercise都有“磨炼，演习”的意思，近义词复现，以是选[C]
8. [尺度谜底] [B]
9. [尺度谜底] [D]
[选项剖析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] channel通道，频道。[B]condition条件。[C]sequence序次，序列。[D]process历程，法式模范。凭证知识，思虑是一个历程，而且经由历程脑神经相互接触来完成，其他选项体现渠道、序列、条件，均不切合知识。是以准确谜底是体现历程的[D]选项。这句话的意思是思虑是大脑神经毗连须要的历程。
10. [尺度谜底] [D]
[选项剖析] 这四个选项均为动词。[A] persist保持。[B] believe信托。[C] excel逾越。[D] feature特点。本句句意，在某种水平来讲，我们在阻拦神经毗连(直接影响人的聪慧水平)方面的特殊才干是与生俱来的。excel 有逾越善于的意思，显露在某个方面出众，放在此处切合题意，是以准确谜底为[B]。
11. [尺度谜底] [D]
[选项剖析] 本题须要的是一个副词，而且位于句首，是以考察的是句关系。经由历程前后句意义来定谜底，前一句强调的是智力是与生俱来的(inherited)，尔后一句则以为是可以经由历程脑力运动(mental effort)会有所摇动，两句意义显着相反，故准确谜底为[D] However。
12. [尺度谜底] [A]
[选项剖析] 本题着实不难，可以明确为：智力可以……脑力运动取得提升或泛起摇动。 [B]regardless of “岂论，掉落落臂”不合逻辑。[C]apart from“除……以外”也不合适。[D]instead of “取代”显着不符。故[A]为准确谜底。
13. [尺度谜底] [B]
[选项剖析] 本题考察的是结实搭配：take a step ……，能搭配只需A和C，划分指“接纳进一步措施”和“让到一边去”，岂论从逻辑上还是从句意上都是A切合。
14. [尺度谜底] [A]
[选项剖析] 本题考察的是动宾搭配：improve and regain sb’s mental ……，再凭证前文一直在讲若何前进“智力”，是以可以扫除A(形式)和B(稳固性)，C(无邪性)和D(尖锐性，尖锐性)容易混淆，C有一定的滋扰性，但双比之下，D更契合前文，故选D。
15. [尺度谜底] [D]
16. [尺度谜底] [B]
[选项剖析] 空格所在句的意思是说这个培训课程还可以_____学习进度，而且给予详实的信息反映。凭证语境，空格缺乏的词汇意义为跟踪学习进度，剖析四个选项，直接扫除A hold, C order; 辨析B,D两个选项，与D选项的pace搭配的介词应当为with，即，keep pace with，以是扫除，B选项为准确谜底，keep track of 意思为跟踪。
17. [尺度谜底] [C]
18. [尺度谜底] [C]
19. [尺度谜底] [C]
[选项剖析] 空格所在句的意思是说它会经常调剂并升级有关训练游戏，以促进脑力的赓续____。本题所缺乏的动词须要与介词on 搭配，A put on 穿上，增添;B carry on 推行;C build on 在……基础上增添，构建;D take on 泛起;代入空格发现只需C合适，A,B,D都不与空格前面的development 相搭配。
20. [尺度谜底] [C]
[选项剖析] 本题触及的是一个含不定式作后定的句子，所缺词汇为形貌词润饰exercise routine，凭证前后情绪不合的逻辑，经由历程前面的不定式中的要害词increase寺和vary your muscle use等信息反推所需词汇为正向词汇，直接扫除A和B，D是中性，只需C(有用的)切合逻辑，故为准确谜底。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, D. Mark your choice on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Orbome, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit-and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?
More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people say off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsides laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”-protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.
Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions.Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at ￡71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU.
21.George Osborne’s scheme was intended to
[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.
谜底：B 细节题。本道题的要害是intended to问的是目的，以是我们也应当去寻觅体现目的性的词汇，以是在首段首句看到了in order to ,则前面的内容即为本题谜底，联络前面找使命的内容则选择B选项。
22.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means
[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[B]to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.
[C]to register for an allowance from the government.
[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.
谜底： C 词义句意题。先凭证题干定位到第二段第三行，to sign on前面有一个很显着的not，则我们可以推知，这一定是前面的反义，我们只需读懂前面半部门便可以了，前面说应当spend looking for work，正好和A选项切合，以是我们只需选择一个相反的选项便可，则选择C选项。
23.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]A desire to secure a better life for all.
[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.
[D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.
24.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel
谜底: A 细节题。本道题凭证unemployed回到文中定位在第三段的最后一句，没有感应相关内容，以是须要向前找谜底，再凭证本段第一句话中的losing a job便可剖断谜底在第二句，是以选择A选项。另我们会发现BCD三个选项趋于强烈和负面，以是，我们选择A选项。
25.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
谜底:B 细节题。本题题凭证选项定位。A选项凭证大写字母The British welfare system定位到最后一段的第三句，原文是“no longer”，选项与原文反向滋扰。B选项凭证Osborne’s reforms
定位到第一段第二句，可以得出该项目可增添掉落业风险，以是B为准确谜底。C选项凭证题干“the jobseekers’ allowance”定位到最后一段倒数第二句，该句提到“no fundamental right”，恰与C选项表意相反，以是C是反向滋扰。D选项凭证题干“conditional”定位到最后一段最后一句，其中只提到“conditional on actively seeking a job…”，并没有要说以后应当怎样，以是属于生事生非。
All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession---with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so.Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact,allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to
[A]the growing demand from clients.
[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect of working in big firms.
[D]the attraction of financial rewards.
谜底：D。该题是因果细节题，考察细节。首先，凭证段落定位准绳模糊定位，定位到前几段。其次，再准一定位，题干中有要害词“students”“law”“profession”，回到原文寻觅相关信息。第一段未发现相关信息，然后到第二段看到“The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools.”与题干有重合的地方，选项D是该句的同义替换。A、B、C三个选项凭证原文个体词汇“clients”“inflation”“big-firm”等阻拦滋扰。重视，第一段的But是个假转机词，着实不是谜底处。
27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving training by professional associations.
谜底：C。该题是细节题，考察细节。首先凭证段落定位准绳定位到第三段。其次，凭证题干要害词“the costs of legal education”准一定位到第三段第二句话“One is the excessive costs of a legal education.”效果是“which of the following adds to the costs of legal education”，是以定位句的下一句就是谜底，即“There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools accredited by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam.”剖析选项可知，选项C适当概略了该句子的涵义。A选项应用三段末尾的“This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts.”阻拦滋扰。B选项生事生非。D选项凭证四段最后一句泛起的“training”个体词汇阻拦滋扰。
28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.
[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.
谜底：B。该题是启事细节题，问泉源。首先段落定位准绳定位到第四段。其次，凭证题干要害词“the reform of the legal system”定位到第二句“Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them.”选项B即为该句的同义替换。
29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.
谜底：A。该题为因果细节题，问启事。凭证段落定位准绳定位至倒数第二段。其次，题干中泛起“the guild-like ownership structure”，准一定位到第二句“Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow.”此外，在该段最后一句提到“…keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.”从而可以得出谜底选A。
30.In this text, the author mainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.
谜底：C。该题为文章主旨题，考察文章中央。该篇文章属于效果处置赏罚赏罚型文章，前5段均在说美国司法职业存在的效果，最后一段提出明确决措施“allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency.”。是以，该篇属于效果处置赏罚赏罚型文章，选C。其他几个选项均为文中的个体细节，以偏概全。
The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism.Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research.
As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include.But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course,themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.
31.The Fundamental Physical Prize is seen as
[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’s wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prize.
[C]an example of bankers’ investment.
[D]a handsome reward for researchers.
谜底：A。为细节题。凭证题干中的Fundamental Physics Prize可以定位到第一段，但除此以外就没有其他细节提醒信息了，以是我们只能凭证几个选项去定位，划分凭证选项中的entrepreneurs、Nobel Prize、investment、reward去定位，在第一段末句找到了与A选项相不合的句子，则剖断A选项准确。
32.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means
[A]the profit-oriented scientists.
[B]the founders of the new award.
[C]the achievement-based system.
谜底：B 。为细节题。凭证题干中的critics定位到第三段，可知第二段没有出题，从第三段第二句可以得出本道题的准确选项，who have made their careers in research即为B选项中的The founders。
33.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]controversies over the recipients’ status.
[B]the joint effort of modern researchers.
[C]legitimate concerns over the new prize.
[D]the demonstration of research findings.
谜底：D 。为细节题。本道题假定从题干中看更像是例证题，但效果中说道the case involves即问例子自己，以是为一道细节题。我们在第四段倒数第三句中找到了Higgs boson，定位到本句可以得知nature of modern research---as well as demonstrated by……即为本道题准确谜底。
34.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel
[A]Their endurance has done justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.
[C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them.
35.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]acceptable despite the criticism.
[B]harmful to the culture of research.
[C]subject to undesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of public attention.
“The Heart of the Matter,” the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report's failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.
In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education."
In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences, with Duke University President Richard Brodhead and retired Exelon CEO John Rowe as co-chairmen. Among the commission's 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies.
To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students' ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs.
One of the more novel ideas in the report is the creation of a "Culture Corps" in cities and town across America to "transmit humanistic and social scientific expertise from one generation to the next."
Unfortunately, despite 2? years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities.
The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don't know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for disseminating "progressive," or left-liberal propaganda.
Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets, self-reliance and a distrust of central planning—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.
The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that congress asked it to illuminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
36.选A，该题是细节态度题。着实不是考察全文的态度，也就是说要细节定位。凭证题干定位准绳，定位第一段AAAS泛起的地方，而且一定要找到体现评价的部门。该题嫌疑性很强，由于文章在AAAS前面就又”praise”以是容易误导人人选择谜底B “appreciative(鉴赏的)”，但是我们应当看到有however，我们知道假定第一段泛起转机，那此转机一定跟主旨有关。同时各个题都与主旨相关，以是这道题应当于主旨相关，后文中的“may cause more harm than good.”让我们知道它的还多余利，以是谜底选择A，批判性的。
37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to
[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education
[B] define the government’s role in education
[C] keep a leading position in liberal education
[D] safeguard individuals rights to education
37，选C，细节题。凭证自然段定位准绳，36题在第一段出题，38题在第三段出题，那37题在第二段出题的能够性就很大。同时题干定位”Influential figures in the Congress”与“leading congressional Democrats and Republicans”同义替换。定位的谜底是asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and ….., individual benefactors and others" to "asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “In humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “也就是说谜底重点在maintain national excellence 恰恰与选项C 中的leading position 阻拦同义替换。ABD与文章不切合。
38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests
[A] an exclusive study of American history
[B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects
[C] the application of emerging technologies
[D] funding for the study of foreign languages
38，选C，推理题。Suggest 是推理题的标志。先化选项要害词，发现选项A是讲American history选项B; 是讲theoretical subjects;选项C]emerging technologies;选项Dfunding foreign languages。前往原文定位的时间，A 选项中的“exclusive 排外”并没有在“stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government;”这句话中体现。B选项中的现实学科没有定位点。D选项与原文“increased funding for teachers”和“greater study of foreign languages,”不符。属于张冠李戴。“encourages the use of new digital technologies.”与选项C 同义替换。
39. The author implies in Paragraph S that professors are
[A] supportive of free markets
[B] cautious about intellectual investigation
[C] conservative about public policy
[D] biased against classical liberal ideas
39题选B，属于推理题。Implies是推理题的标志。同时凭证提题干定位第五段，找professor. “professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets, self-reliance —as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.”A 选项中的free markets前面的润饰词语是conservative or liberal ideas 没有体现A 选项中的supportive。C选项中的conservative 与文中progressive public policy 不切合。D选项中biased 没有体现，故扫除。以是选B。
40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] Ways to Grasp “The Heart of the Matter”
[B] Illiberal Education and “The Heart of the Matter”
[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education
[D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education
40.题选择B。主旨大意题。先看其他题题干，我们锁定要害词是report ，而report 就是“the heart of the matter “ 故扫除C和D.而我们看A 发现文章并没有讲若何捉住“效果焦点”的各个措施。扫除A，选择B
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes .Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm .Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, fell into its deep valley in 1911.Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.
[B] In another case, American archaeologists Rene million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City .at its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the word. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes.in one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copán, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural village and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD500 and 850, when Copán collapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airbone technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamum existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the King for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Eyan combed antique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for thing engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evas’s interpretations of those engravings eventually led them to find the Minoan palace at Knossos on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amounts of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detector. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.
41 --- A --- 42. --- E ---43 --- 44 --- 45
剖析：本文选自揭晓于2003年The International History Project的文章，效果为Archeology.
41. 此题是首段，以是须要找寻综述性的段落。其中A和E选项是给出的，以是只需从余下选项阻拦选择。B选项中有another，以是不会是第一段。E选项中代词their没有指代工具。F中有however,也不会是第一段。是以，只留下C和D选项。在C选项最后一句提到survey和test sample也很主要。而在D选项开首就提到了survey,而且整段都是，由此可看出D是对C的分述。以是C是首段。
44. 此时，只留下B和D选项。其中B选项开首提到了in another case,所之前面一段一定要提到in one case, 而D选项中有in one case.以是，D选项在前。
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET(10 points)
Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music.46) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. 47) By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. 48) Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society.49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. 50) One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
46. It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
【句型剖析】本句主句主干为it is the reason，why指导定语从句，润饰the reason。定语从句的主干是all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself，其表语是不定式短语，由于主语中含有do，不定式符号to省略：articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself。our reactions以后to it为其定语，it指代music。定语从句中还网罗when指导的时间状语从句。
②定语从句中，when指导时间状语从句，其中with words做状语，翻译时需调剂语序到其润饰的to describe之前，可以表达为“当我们考试考试用语言来形貌音乐时”。定语从句的主干顺译便可，其中reaction凭证语境，可以翻译为“感伤熏染”，其定语to it在表达时前置，it指代回复为“音乐”，则可以翻译为“所有我们能做的，就是明确表达我们关于音乐的感伤熏染”，或许调剂表达为“我们只能明确表达我们关于音乐的感伤熏染”。and以后，grasp凭证语境，须要翻译为“明确”。
47. By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
【句型剖析】本句为并列句。第一个分句he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one，句首by all accounts为结实搭配，意思是“凭证各方面说”。第二个分句的主干为I find courage an essential quality，其中宾语为courage，而an essential quality是宾语补足语。quality后介词短语for the understanding of his work为其定语，其中还网罗一个拔出结构let alone the performance。
【翻译要点】① 第一个分句结构较量质朴，句首结实搭配by all accounts，可以调剂表达，翻译为“据人人所说”。主干顺译便可，其中he指代“贝多芬”，one指代person。这一部门可以翻译为“贝多芬是个头脑自在、充斥勇气的人”。
②第二个分句，主干为“我发现勇气是一个要害品行”，quality后为其定语for the understanding of his work，其中the understanding of his work意思为“关于其作品的明确”，做词性转化后，可以表达为“明确其作品”，这个介词短语须要调剂语序前置于quality，可以翻译为“明确他作品的要害品行”，则第二个分句可以表达为“我发现勇气，是明确他作品的要害品行”。还可以调剂表达为“我发现勇气这一品行，是明确他作品的要害”。
③在定语for the understanding of his work中的拔身世分，在逻辑上let alone并列the understanding和the performance，二者共用定语of his works，顺译句末便可：更不用说是饰演其作品的要害品行。
48. Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
【句型剖析】本句主干为Beethoven’s habit was used by composers before him。本句的谓语为自动语态，主语habit后介词短语of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage为其定语，是由介词of与and并列的两个动名词短语increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage组成。
【翻译要点】①本句主干较为质朴，但是主语habit后有很长的后置定语：Habit of increasing the volume…，其中“habit”可以词性转换为动词“习气”，而中文经常先表达主要信息，则这一部门可以翻译一句话“贝多芬习气增添…”，置于句首。第一个动名词短语中，with an extreme intensity为状语，表达时需调剂语序到其润饰的increasing the volume前，凭证语境，volume意思为“音量”，则increasing可以翻译为“增高”。这一部门可以翻译为“最大限制来徐徐增高音量”。第二个动名词短语then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage，状语with a sudden soft passage需调剂到following it前表达，其中passage凭证语境，意思为“乐段”。则这一部门可以表达为“然后突然跟上柔柔的乐段”。整合本句主语与其定语，可以翻译为“贝多芬习气最大限制来徐徐增高音量，然后突然跟上柔柔的乐段”。
49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
【句型剖析】本句为完全倒装，主句的主干是his view of freedom was Especially significant。
his view of freedom后为which指导的非限制性定语从句，润饰freedom，关系代词which在定语从句中作主语。of the individual润饰the rights and responsibilities，冒号落先行诠释诠释。
② which指导英语从句，润饰freedom，表达时翻译成此外一句话“关于他而言，这类自在是与小我的权力和义务联系起来的”，其中for him还可以调剂表达为“他以为”。
50. One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
【句型剖析】本句主句主干为One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven，以后by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living为状语，润饰interpret。其中that指导宾语从句suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living，为saying的宾语，宾语从句中it指代suffering。
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university, suggesting how to improve students’ physical condition.
You should include the details you think necessary.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address.(10 points)
称谓： Dear Mr. President,重视称谓中，所有虚词首字母所有大写，Dear Mr. President前面的逗号弗成丢，也不克不及写成冒号。
第一段：写作内容需涵盖两点：写信目的，注解建议;赞美在前，建议在后。文章开首直抒己见的注解了写信目的，用到了这样的表达It is my great honor to write to you. 第二句赞美在前，建议在后。文中用到了这样的表达As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise.
题名： Yours sincerely, 特殊提醒sincerely前面逗号不克不及丢;
署名： Li Ming 特殊重视 Ming 前面一定不克不及泛起句点。
Dear Mr. President,
It is my great honor to write to you. As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise.
Since most of the time is spent in watching TV and playing computer games, our physical conditions are not good enough. i still have some suggestions for you. To begin with, our university should arrange more PE classes. To continue, we should have a fixed schedule for a certain time of outdoor activity. What is more, teaching faculty should be involved in the same kind of physical exercise.
I hope that our university could take the responsibility for our students’ physical health. I will be highly grateful if you could take my suggestions into account.
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) interpret its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points)
As is vividly described in the left part of the drawing, thirty years ago, there stood a delicate mother, holding the tiny hand of a lovely girl, who wore a red scarf. On the contrary, the right part of the picture illustrates that with time flying quickly, the little girl, who has already grown up as a gorgeous lady, is supporting her old mother. We are informed: accompanying.
It is without saying that the old and the young are two indispensable parts in society. On the one hand, what we have and enjoy now was created by our parents in the early days, as the old Chinese saying goes, "One generation plants tress under whose shade another generation rests". On the other hand, all of us are supposed to take good care of the youngsters, too. It is children who make us see the future of our state, for they are the future builders of our country.
The young should consider it a moral obligation respecting and taking care of old parents. Meanwhile, it is also the duty of the parents to protect, educate and look after the youths. Let's bear this in mind and cultivate that virtue together, because only by doing so, can we feel as if we were living in a happy and harmonious family.