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Section 1 Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
1. [尺度谜底] [C]how
[选项剖析] 凭证语境，“新发现注解：快活能够会影响使命__的稳固。”[A] 为甚么 [B] 那里 [C] 怎样，何等 [D] 当…时间。凭证语义剖析，C选项填入原文，译为“快活能够会影响使命是有何等稳固”，C为准确选项。
2. [尺度谜底] [B]In particular
[选项剖析] [A] 反已往 [B] 特殊是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来讲 凭证前文语境，第二段第一句译为“凭证近期的研究，具有更多快活的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快活力氛中的公司会做更多的研发和生长。“第二句是在第一句的基础前途一步强调剂释，是以B选项更切合语境请求。
3. [尺度谜底] [D]necessary
[选项剖析] [A]充实的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完善的 [D] 须要的 首先，凭证本句题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“由于快活与对未来投资有______久远推敲相联系。”请求填写形貌词, 我们要推敲其搭配与其润饰因素。空格处搭配介词for, 而且润饰“久远推敲”。是以D选项最切合语境请求。
4. [尺度谜底] [C]optimism
[选项剖析] [A]小我主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐不雅不雅主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考察同后缀的名词辨析。凭证原文主旨，探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么，权衡四个选项，只需C选项切合主旨请求。
5. [尺度谜底] [D]change
[选项剖析] [A]收回回声 [B] 惦念，错过 [C] 破损 [D] 改变 凭证原文语境，“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考察动宾搭配，宾语为“公司投资的要领”只需D选项搭配最为公正。
[选项剖析] [A]想象 [B] 权衡，丈量 [C] 创作缔造 [D] 假定，设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国都会匀称幸福指数与该地域的上市公司投资生动度阻拦较量。” 凭证原文语境，盖洛普咨询公司所做的应当是一个“既定现实”以是扫除ACD。是以，B选项为最好选项。
[选项剖析] [A]确信的 [B] 希奇的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为结实搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以一定的是，”
[选项剖析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税太重的 [D]位于总部的 凭证原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以一定的是，公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 指导体现所在的定语从句，先行词为area.较量四个选项，ABC缺乏以诠释此所在的真实寄义。是以，D选项，搭配前文area,组成“总部所在地”最为公正。
[选项剖析] [A]诠释 [B] 强调 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 凭证原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配应用。
[选项剖析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 品级[D]措施 凭证原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中，破折号前面 “巨细，家当，发卖”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。是以，B选项最切合原文语境。
11.[尺度谜底] [A] desirable
[选项剖析] 该空填的是形貌词，用来润饰前面的名词place,而且在乎义上也是对前面like growth in wages or population的诠释，可以看出来应当是填褒义词，而且能润饰place.以是只需[A]desirable合适的 切合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊重的 [D]reliable 可依附的。
12. [尺度谜底] [B]held
[选项剖析] 该句算是这一段的总结句，该段所有在形貌幸福与投资之间的关系，而这一link就只能得出了，只需[B]held ”得出”切合语境。A resumed “重新泉源”，C emerge “浮现”，D broke “破损”。
13.[尺度谜底] [A] attribute
[选项剖析]该空是一个which指导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地，动词的宾语就是前面的主句，强调“幸福与投资之间的关系特殊适用于新公司”这一结论与前面“所做决议会偏忽略”之间的关系，能看出是一个因果关系，是以谜底选择[A]attribute 与to 搭配体现“归因于……”，而[B]assign to体现“指派”[C]transfer to“转移到”[D]compare to“与……较量”均不切合题意。
14.[尺度谜底] [D] experienced
[选项剖析] 此处很质朴，前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young不合润饰managers,强调新公司的指导年轻并缺乏履历，只需[D]experienced最合适。
15. [尺度谜底] [C] also
16. [尺度谜底] [D]equally
[选项剖析] 这题是考察副词润饰spread, 但是更要重视的是该句“这类关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司特殊显着。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快活的员工所在的部门，而不是那些不快活的部门。”中该空与前面的inequality组成复现关系，以是很容易断定出谜底选择[D]equally。
17. [尺度谜底] [C] while
18. [尺度谜底] [C]hints
[选项剖析] 该题可以看出是考察动词与at的结实搭配，arrive at是“到达，抵达”，jump at是“扑向;欣然吸收”hint at是“体现” strike at是“进击，进击”，文章中的at least 和that possibility论证了这是一种能够，只需hint at有这层寄义。
19. [尺度谜底] [A]shape
[选项剖析] 凭证曲折文应被选一个“影响”未来看法寄义的动词，[B]是“再发现”[C]是“使简化，使单纯”[D]是“分享”以是可以都可以扫除，A 是“塑造，组成，影响”，以是A项是最好谜底。
20. [尺度谜底] [B]lean towards
[考点剖析] 本空考察动词词组，且该词组词义应与and前面意思保持不合，且作用工具为研发。[A]pray for 祈祷 [B]lean towards 偏向 [C]give away 放弃，走漏 [D]send out 放出，给予。只需[B]选项能表达一种递进寄义。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and
organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.
21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
B. academic backgrounds
C. career prospects
23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
A. help students learn other computer languages
B. have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C. need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
A. compete with a future army of programmers
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. bring forth innovative computer technologies
25. The word “coax” (Line4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to____.
21 谜底 B remodel the way of thinking.
剖析：此题是文中人物不雅不雅点题。凭证Cortina定位到第二段前三句。Cortina以为尽早接触盘算机迷信是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 译为在改变头脑法式模范模范方面小孩不像年岁较大的师长教员一样艰辛，即B remodel the way of thinking 改变头脑要领即为同义替换。
22 谜底 D interest
23 谜底 A help students learn other computer languages
剖析：文中人物不雅不雅点题。题干问的是Deborah Seehorn以为在Flatiron这里所学到的手艺将能怎样样，据此定位到第五段But处，和题干根天职歧，该句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”，意思是他们学到的手艺可以应用于任何编码语言。较量谜底选项，A选项的意思是“赞助师长教员学习其他的盘算机语言”属于原文定位处的同义替换。
24 谜底 C become better prepared for the digitalized world
剖析：细节题。题干指出：凭证最后一段，Flatiron的师长教员被希冀去干甚么。据此定位到最后一段的These kids are going to be处，是题干的同义复现。定位句“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”，意思是师长教员们越早学越好。C选项“为数字化的未来做更好的准备”是同义概述。
25 谜底 B persuade
剖析：词义句意题，联络曲折文来解题。凭证coax此单词，定位到最后一段最后一句“how to coax the machine into producing what they want”，考察结实搭配“persuade…into…”。A选项寻衅，B选项劝服，C选项使恐慌，D选项误导。考生做题时一定要重视联络曲折文来推想生词的词义，这是命题人的出题 纪律。
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often gray landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species，” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe， the leading role in managing the species in______
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
26 谜底 A its drastically decreased population
剖析：此题是启事细节题。凭证要害词定位到第一段But前后关于lesser prairie chickens 数目2million和22,000的强烈较量。此外第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”都可以得知A its drastically decreased population 数目的急剧降低为准确谜底。
27 谜底 C granted less federal regulatory powers
剖析：此题是启事细节题。凭证要害词定位到第二段第四句，They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. 而But 以后是截然相反的现实，即政府授予了更少的治理权。故而C granted less federal regulatory powers为准确谜底。
28 谜底 A agree to pay a sum for compensation
剖析：揣摸题。题干问的是从第三段推出来：居心风险的那些人是不会被揭穿的假定怎样样。凭证题干定位到第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”，题干中问的if即原文的as long as的赞成替换，原文as long as的意思是：只需他们签署了妄图。下一句说道，该妄图请求个体和企业去支付基金。对应选项A选项“赞成支付赔偿”属于同义替换。
29 谜底 D the states
剖析：此题是细节题。凭证要害词定位到第三段最后一句the idea is to let the“states”remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, Ashe said. 其中in the driver’s seat对应题干中的the leading role, 故而D states为准确谜底。
30 谜底 C environmental groups
剖析：文中人物不雅不雅点题。题干问的是Jay Lininger最能够支持谁，大写人名定位到末段最后一句。最后一句提到：生物学家Jay Lininger说道联邦政府要把义务推给招致鸟类灭绝的企业，显着是对政府和企业的否决。再往前看一句，指出：企业全体和当部门分不雅不雅点不合，情形学家与其不雅不雅点恰巧不合。是以，Jay Lininger最支持情形全体的不雅不雅点了。